The Association for Science Education

C4.4 Dialogic Teaching - Forces

Abstract

This session uses a lecture and workshop format. In the lecture several digital video clips are used to help trainees to become familiar with dialogic teaching and elicitation as a strategy for developing learners’ ideas about Forces. Through watching the video clips trainees will learn to categorise and distinguish between interactive /authoritative, and interactive/dialogic aspects of lessons. These workshop activities are detailed in the arricle and supported be downloads.

Keywords:Talk, discussion, dialogue, dialogic, elicitation, forces, whole-class, interactive

Standards addressed:Q10, Q14

Contents

1. Who are these materials for and what phase (primary or secondary)?
2. Describe content and format of materials.
3. Name of Digital Video clip
4. What are the expected learning outcomes?
5. What prior knowledge do student teachers and/or trainees need?
6. How do the learning and teaching materials assist teacher educators/student teachers and/or trainees in meeting the Standards?
7. Tutors' notes

1: Who are the materials for?

Primary Trainees                         

2. Describe content and format of materials

Content: Videos from Teachers TV. There is a PowerPoint to support the lecture 
This Powerpoint presentation can be accessed as Download c4.4_2.0 Dan Davis Science Lecture Week 6 -dialogic teaching forces
Format: 45 minute lecture followed by 1.5 hour workshop

3. Name of Digital Video clip

Two examples (Y6)
Taken from http://www.teachers.tv/video/1451 (exerpts)
The first is interactive/authoritative and the second is interactive/dialogic
Four examples (Y1) taken from http://www.teachers.tv/video/1429 (exerpts)

4. What are the expected learning outcomes?

Expected Learning outcomes: Participants should be able to:

  • define what is meant by ‘dialogic teaching' and when it might be appropriate to use as part of a science lesson
  • list some strategies for getting children interacting with the teacher and each other to develop their scientific skills, attitudes and understanding
  • explain some of the basic concepts about forces appropriate to the age group(s) they are training to teach
  • list some strategies for eliciting and developing children's understanding of forces

5. What prior knowledge do student teachers and/or trainees need?

They would need some knowledge of Forces

6. How do the learning and teaching materials assist teacher educators/student teachers and/or trainees in meeting the Standards?

The learning point for the trainee teachers is to ensure that they begin to understand how dialogic teaching can be used for the development of subject knowledge

7.0 Tutor Notes

Lecture Outline
The PowerPoint presentation can be found in Download c4.4_2.0 Dan Davis Science Lecture Week 6 -dialogic teaching forces

1. Rediscovering whole-class teaching

  • ‘Three Wise Men'
  • Literacy and Numeracy strategies
  • Alexander (2000) Culture and Pedagogy
  • Technology change
  • Interactivity

2. but....

"There has been an increase in whole-class teaching in primary schools, especially since the introduction of the National Literacy, Numeracy and Primary Strategies, yet the quality of the discourse between teachers and pupils on which higher-order learning critically depends has remained low-level." (Tymms and Merrell 2007)

3. So what do we mean by dialogic?

Questions are structured so as to provoke thoughtful answers [...]answers provoke further questions and are seen as the building blocks of dialogue rather than its terminal point;Individual teacher-pupil and pupil-pupil exchanges are chained into coherent lines of enquiry rather than left stranded and disconnected.(Alexander, 2004, p. 32.)

4. Research evidence (Galton et al 1999)

  • 50% of science interactions take place within a whole class setting
  • In science there were fewer ‘sustained interactions' - 10%, compared with 20% in maths and 26% in English
  • The % of closed questions was highest in maths and sciencenumber of statements of facts was highest in science

5. Inspection evidence - "good' science teaching"

In these lessons, the teacher also maintains a flow of questions throughout the main activity, including:

  • why do you think that......?
  • how do you know that.....?
  • what does that tell us about......?
  • can you be sure about that.....?
  • how can you explain that......?

Many of these effective lessons also include a plenary, not always at the end, when children discuss what they have done" (OfSTED 2004)

6. Dialogic and Interactive - what's the difference?

- INTERACTIVE NON-INTERACTIVE
AUTHORITATIVE interactive/authoritative non-interactive/authoritative
DIALOGIC non-interactive/dialogic interactive/dialogic

Source: Mortimer and Scott (2003)
 
7. Two examples (Y6)
Taken from http://www.teachers.tv/video/1451 (excerpts)
The first is interactive/authoritative and the second interactive/dialogic

8. Four examples (Y1)

Taken from http://www.teachers.tv/video/1429 (excerpts)
Trainees categorise these using Mortimer and Scott's framework (one e.g. of each communicative approach)
 
9. Dialogic/interactive teaching and elicitation
Why do some things float?
A. Because they're light/small?
B. Because they're made of wood or plastic?
C. Because they're spread out?
D. Because they're less dense than water?
E. Because they displace enough water to balance their weight?
Trainees discuss their ideas in groups and then observe/participate in demonstration
10. Dialogic teaching to plan scientific enquiry
How can we test which trainer has the best grip?
Available equipment: two trainers, Newton-meter, slope, different surfaces, weights
Trainees discuss their ideas in pairs, then come up to front to demonstrate how they would investigate. They are invited to add to each other's ideas.
A detailed workshop plan is available as Download c4.4_7.0_Workshop on Dialogic Teaching_FORCES